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Keys

Overview

Keys is an extension to make entering and styling keyboard key presses easier. Syntactically, Keys is built around the + symbol. A key or combination of key presses is surrounded by ++ with each key press separated with a single +.

Keys Example

CtrlAltDel.

++ctrl+alt+delete++

The Keys extension can be included in Python Markdown by using the following:

import markdown
md = markdown.Markdown(extensions=['pymdownx.keys'])

Special Characters Before/After Key

You might have noticed that in this page many keys show special Unicode symbols before (and sometimes after) a key's text. The Keys extension only provides ASCII labels out of the box. Any special Unicode characters that are seen in this document are provided by using additional CSS.

If desired, you can provide your own symbols by doing one of the following:

  1. You can use CSS styling. The elements are created with classes that are derived from the main key code name (not the aliases) so that you can target them to provide special styling. Check out Formatting for more info.

  2. You can also override the label that is output for the key by provided your own text via the key_map parameter. This would require no additional CSS. More info is provided here.

Formatting

By default, Keys outputs keys in the form:

<span class="keys">
  <kbd class="key-ctrl">Ctrl</kbd>
  <span>+</span>
  <kbd class="key-alt">Alt</kbd>
  <span>+</span>
  <kbd class="key-delete">Delete</kbd>
</span>

Separator spans will be omitted if a separator is not provided via the options.

Notice the wrapper span has the class keys applied to it. This is so you can target it or the elements under it with CSS. Each recognized key has its own special key class assigned to it in the form key-<key name>. These individual key classes are great if you want to show a special modifier key symbol before the key text (which is done in this documentation).

The wrapper keys class can be customized with options, and the individual key classes are generated from the key-map index.

separator spans will be omitted if a separator is not provided via the options)

Custom Keys

If you would like to generate a key which isn't in the key index, you can extend the key map via a special option. But if you don't need a key with a special class generated, or you need a way to quickly enter a one time, arbitrary key, you can just insert it directly, instead of specifying the key's name, by quoting the content displayed instead of a key name. You can also enter HTML entities if desired.

Quoted Example

CtrlAltMy Special Key

CmdAltÜ

++ctrl+alt+"My Special Key"++

++cmd+alt+"&Uuml;"++

Strict KBD Output

According to HTML5 spec on kbd, a literal key input, is represented by a kbd wrapped in another kbd:

<kbd class="keys">
  <kbd class="key-ctrl">Ctrl</kbd>
  <span>+</span>
  <kbd class="key-alt">Alt</kbd>
  <span>+</span>
  <kbd class="key-delete">Delete</kbd>
</kbd>

This is not how many people traditionally use kbds for key inputs, but if you are a stickler for rules, you can enable the strict option to use a more "proper" format.

Key-Map Index

By default, Keys provides a key-map index for English US keyboards. The key-map index is a dictionary that provides all the supported key names along with their corresponding display text. There is also a separate alias dictionary which maps some aliases to entries in the key-map index.

Extending/Modifying Key-Map Index

If you want to add additional keys, or override text of existing keys, you can feed in your keys via the key_map option. The key_map parameter takes a simple dictionary with key names that are represented by lowercase alphanumeric characters and hyphens (-). The values of the dictionary represent the the text that is displayed for the key in the HTML output.

So if you wanted to add a custom key, you could do this: {"custom": "Custom Key"}. If you wanted to override the output of the option key and change it from Option to Opt, you could do this: {"option": "Opt"}.

Alphanumeric and Space Keys

Name Display Aliases
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 8
9 9
a A
b B
c C
d D
e E
f F
g G
h H
i I
j J
k K
l L
m M
n N
o O
p P
q Q
r R
s S
t T
u U
v V
w W
x X
y Y
z Z
space Space spc

Punctuation Keys

Name Display Aliases
backslash \
bar | pipe
brace-left { open-brace
brace-right } close-bracket
bracket-left [ open-bracket
bracket-right ] close-brace
colon :
comma ,
double-quote " dblquote
equal =
exclam ! exclamation
grave ` grave-accent
greater > greater-than, gt
less < less-than, lt
minus - hyphen
period .
plus +
question ? question-mark
semicolon ;
single-quote '
slash /
tilde ~
underscore _
Name Display Aliases
arrow-up Up up
arrow-down Down down
arrow-left Left left
arrow-right Right right
page-up Page Up prior, page-up, pg-up
page-down Page Down next, page-dn, pg-dn
home Home
end End
tab Tab tabulator

Editing Keys

Name Display Aliases
backspace Backspace back, bksp
delete Del del
insert Ins ins

Action Keys

Name Display Aliases
break Break cancel
caps-lock Caps Lock capital, cplk
clear Clear clr
eject Eject
enter Enter return
escape Esc esc
help Help
print-screen Print Screen prtsc
scroll-lock Scroll Lock scroll

Numeric Keypad Keys

Name Display Aliases
num0 Num 0
num1 Num 1
num2 Num 2
num3 Num 3
num4 Num 4
num5 Num 5
num6 Num 6
num7 Num 7
num8 Num 8
num9 Num 9
num-asterisk Num * multiply
num-clear Num Clear
num-delete Num Del num-del
num-equal Num =
num-lock Num Lock numlk, numlock
num-minus Num - subtract
num-plus Num + add
num-separator Num . decimal, separator
num-slash Num / divide
num-enter Num Enter

Modifier keys

Name Display Aliases
alt Alt
left-alt Left Alt lalt
right-alt Right Alt ralt
alt-graph AltGr altgr
command Cmd cmd
left-command Left Command lcommand, lcmd, left-cmd
right-command Right Command rcommand, rcmd, right-cmd
control Ctrl ctrl
left-control Left Ctrl lcontrol, lctrl, left-ctrl
right-control Right Ctrl rcontrol, rctrl, right-ctrl
function Fn fn
meta Meta
left-meta Left Meta lmeta
right-meta Right Meta rmeta
option Option opt
left-option Left Option loption, lopt, left-opt
right-option Right Option roption, ropt, right-opt
shift Shift
left-shift Left Shift lshift
right-shift Right Shift rshift
super Super
left-super Left Super lsuper
right-super Right Super rsuper
windows Win win
left-windows Left Win lwindows, left-win, lwin
right-windows Right Win rwindows, right-win, rwin

Function keys

Name Display Aliases
f1 F1
f2 F2
f3 F3
f4 F4
f5 F5
f6 F6
f7 F7
f8 F8
f9 F9
f10 F10
f11 F11
f12 F12
f13 F13
f14 F14
f15 F15
f16 F16
f17 F17
f18 F18
f19 F19
f20 F20
f21 F21
f22 F22
f23 F23
f24 F24

Extra Keys

Name Display Aliases
backtab Back Tab bktab
browser-back Browser Back
browser-favorites Browser Favorites favorites
browser-forward Browser Forward forward
browser-home Browser Home
browser-refresh Browser Refresh refresh
browser-search Browser Search search
browser-stop Browser Stop
copy Copy
context-menu Menu apps, menu
mail Mail launch-mail
media Media launch-media
media-next-track Next Track next-track
media-pause Pause pause
media-play Play play
media-play-pause Play/Pause play-pause
media-prev-track Previous Track prev-track
media-stop Stop stop
print Print
reset Reset
select Select
sleep Sleep
volume-down Volume Down vol-down
volume-mute Mute mute
volume-up Volume Up vol-up
zoom Zoom

Mouse

Name Display Aliases
left-button Left Button lbutton
middle-button Middle Button mbutton
right-button Right Button rbutton
x-button1 X Button 1 xbutton1
x-button2 X Button 2 xbutton2

Options

Option Type Default Description
separator string '+' Define a separator.
strict bool False Use strict HTML5 output for keyboard key input.
class string 'keys' Defines a class(es) to apply to the HTML wrapper element.
camel_case bool False Allow the use of camel case for key names PgUppg-up.
key_map dict {} Add additional keys to the key-map index or override output of existing outputs. See Extending/Modifying Key-Map Index for more info.

Last update: April 18, 2020