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wcmatch.pathlib

from wcmatch import pathlib

New 5.0

wcmatch.pathlib was added in wcmatch 5.0.

Overview

pathlib is a library that contains subclasses of Python's pathlib Path and PurePath classes, and their Posix and Windows subclasses, with the purpose of overriding the default glob behavior with Wildcard Match's very own glob. This allows a user of pathlib to use all of the glob enhancements that Wildcard Match provides. This includes features such as extended glob patterns, brace expansions, and more.

This documentation does not mean to exhaustively describe the pathlib library, just the differences introduced by Wildcard Match's implementation. Please check out Python's pathlib documentation to learn more about pathlib in general. Also, to learn more about the underlying glob library being used, check out the documentation for Wildcard Match's glob.

Multi-Pattern Limits

Many of the API functions allow passing in multiple patterns or using either BRACE or SPLIT to expand a pattern in to more patterns. The number of allowed patterns is limited 1000, but you can raise or lower this limit via the keyword option limit. If you set limit to 0, there will be no limit.

New 6.0

The imposed pattern limit and corresponding limit option was introduced in 6.0.

Differences

The API is the same as Python's default pathlib except for the few differences related to file globbing and matching:

  • Each pathlib object's glob, rglob, and match methods are now driven by the wcmatch.glob library. As a result, some of the defaults and accepted parameters are different. Also, many new optional features can be enabled via flags.

  • glob, rglob, and match can take a single string pattern or a list of patterns. They also accept flags via the flags keyword. This matches the interfaces found detailed in our glob documentation.

  • glob, rglob, and match do not enable GLOBSTAR or DOTGLOB by default. These flags must be passed in to take advantage of this functionality.

  • A globmatch function has been added to PurePath classes (and Path classes which are derived from PurePath) which is like match except without the right to left behavior. See match and globmatch for more information.

  • If file searching methods (glob and rglob) are given multiple patterns, they will ensure duplicate results are filtered out. This only occurs when more than one inclusive pattern is given, or a pattern is expanded into multiple, inclusive patterns via BRACE or SPLIT. When this occurs, an internal set is kept to track the results returned so that duplicates can be filtered. This will not occur if only a single, inclusive pattern is given or the NOUNIQUE flag is specified.

  • Python's pathlib has logic to ignore . when used as a directory in both the file path and glob pattern. We do not alter how pathlib stores paths, but our implementation allows explicit use of . as a literal directory and will match accordingly. With that said, since pathlib normalizes paths by removing . directories, in most cases, you won't notice the difference, except when it comes to a path that is literally just ..

    Python's default glob:

    >>> import pathlib
    >>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob('docs/./src'))
    [PosixPath('docs/src')]
    

    Ours:

    >>> form wcmatch import pathlib
    >>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob('docs/./src'))
    [PosixPath('docs/src')]
    

    Python's default glob:

    >>> import pathlib
    >>> pathlib.Path('.').match('.')
    Traceback (most recent call last):
      File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
      File "/usr/local/Cellar/python@3.8/3.8.3/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.8/lib/python3.8/pathlib.py", line 976, in match
        raise ValueError("empty pattern")
    ValueError: empty pattern
    

    Ours:

    >>> from wcmatch import pathlib
    >>> pathlib.Path('.').match('.')
    True
    

Similarities

  • glob, rglob, and match should mimic the basic behavior of Python's original pathlib library, just with the enhancements and configurability that Wildcard Match's glob provides.

  • glob and rglob will yield an iterator of the results.

  • rglob will exhibit the same recursive behavior.

  • match will exhibit the same right to left behavior.

Classes

pathlib.PurePath

PurePath is Wildcard Match's version of Python's PurePath class. Depending on the system, it will create either a PureWindowsPath or a PurePosixPath object. Both objects will utilize wcmatch.glob for all glob related actions.

PurePath objects do not touch the filesystem. They include the methods match and globmatch (amongst others). You can force the path to access the filesystem if you give either function the REALPATH flag. We do not restrict this, but we do not enable it by default. REALPATH simply forces the match to check the filesystem to see if the file exists and is a directory or not.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> pathlib.PurePath('docs/src')
PurePosixPath('docs/src')

PurePath classes implement the match and globmatch methods:

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> p = pathlib.PurePath('docs/src')
>>> p.match('src')
True
>>> p.globmatch('**/src', flags=pathlib.GLOBSTAR)
True

pathlib.PureWindowsPath

PureWindowsPath is Wildcard Match's version of Python's PureWindowsPath. The PureWindowsPath class is useful if you'd like to have the ease that pathlib offers when working with a path, but don't want it to access the filesystem. This is also useful if you'd like to manipulate Windows path strings on a Posix system. This class will utilize Wildcard Match's glob for all glob related actions. The class is subclassed from PurePath.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> os.name
'posix'
>>> pathlib.PureWindowsPath('c:/some/path')
PureWindowsPath('c:/some/path')

pathlib.PurePosixPath

PurePosixPath is Wildcard Match's version of Python's PurePosixPath. The PurePosixPath class is useful if you'd like to have the ease that pathlib offers when working with a path, but don't want it to access the filesystem. This is also useful if you'd like to manipulate Posix path strings on a Windows system. This class will utilize Wildcard Match's glob for all glob related actions. The class is subclassed from PurePath.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> os.name
'nt'
>>> pathlib.PureWindowsPath('/usr/local/bin')
PurePosixPath('/usr/local/bin')

pathlib.Path

Path is Wildcard Match's version of Python's Path class. Depending on the system, it will create either a WindowsPath or a PosixPath object. Both objects will utilize wcmatch.glob for all glob related actions.

Path classes are subclassed from the PurePath objects, so you get all the features of the Path class in addition to the PurePath class features. Path objects have access to the filesystem. They include the PurePath methods match and globmatch (amongst others). Since these methods are PurePath methods, they do not touch the filesystem. But, you can force them to access the filesystem if you give either function the REALPATH flag. We do not restrict this, but we do not enable it by default. REALPATH simply forces the match to check the filesystem to see if the file exists and is a directory or not.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> pathlib.PurePath('docs/src')
PosixPath('docs/src')

Path classes implement the glob and globmatch methods:

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> p = pathlib.Path('docs/src')
>>> p.match('src')
True
>>> p.globmatch('**/src', flags=pathlib.GLOBSTAR)
True
>>> list(p.glob('**/*.txt', flags=pathlib.GLOBSTAR))
[PosixPath('docs/src/dictionary/en-custom.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/links.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/refs.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/abbr.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/posix.txt')]
>>> list(p.rglob('*.txt'))
[PosixPath('docs/src/dictionary/en-custom.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/links.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/refs.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/abbr.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/posix.txt')]

pathlib.WindowsPath

WindowsPath is Wildcard Match's version of Python's WindowsPath. The WindowsPath class is useful if you'd like to have the ease that pathlib offers when working with a path and be able to manipulate or gain access to to information about that file. You cannot instantiate this class on a Posix system. This class will utilize Wildcard Match's glob for all glob related actions. The class is subclassed from Path.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> os.name
'posix'
>>> pathlib.Path('c:/some/path')
WindowsPath('c:/some/path')

pathlib.PosixPath

PosixPath is Wildcard Match's version of Python's PosixPath. The PosixPath class is useful if you'd like to have the ease that pathlib offers when working with a path and be able to manipulate or gain access to to information about that file. You cannot instantiate this class on a Windows system. This class will utilize Wildcard Match's glob for all glob related actions. The class is subclassed from Path.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> os.name
'posix'
>>> pathlib.Path('/usr/local/bin')
PosixPath('/usr/local/bin')

Methods

PurePath.match

def match(self, patterns, *, flags=0, limit=1000):

match takes a pattern (or list of patterns), and flags. It also allows configuring the max pattern limit. It will return a boolean indicating whether the object's file path was matched by the pattern(s).

match mimics Python's pathlib version of match. Python's match uses a right to left evaluation. Wildcard Match emulates this behavior as well. What this means is that when provided with a path some/path/name, the patterns name, path/name and some/path/name will all match.

Because the path is evaluated right to left, dot files may not prevent matches when DOTGLOB is disabled.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> pathlib.PurePath('.dotfile/file').match('file')
True
>>> pathlib.PurePath('../.dotfile/file').match('file')
True

match does not access the filesystem, but you can force the path to access the filesystem if you give it the REALPATH flag. We do not restrict this, but we do not enable it by default. REALPATH simply forces the match to check the filesystem to see if the file exists and is a directory or not.

Since Path is derived from PurePath, this method is also available in Path objects.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> p = pathlib.PurePath('docs/src')
>>> p.match('src')
True

New 6.0

limit was added in 6.0.

PurePath.globmatch

def globmatch(self, patterns, *, flags=0, limit=1000):

globmatch takes a pattern (or list of patterns), and flags. It also allows configuring the max pattern limit.It will return a boolean indicating whether the objects file path was matched by the pattern(s).

globmatch is similar to match except it does not use the same recursive logic that match does. In all other respects, it behaves the same.

globmatch does not access the filesystem, but you can force the path to access the filesystem if you give it the REALPATH flag. We do not restrict this, but we do not enable it by default. REALPATH simply forces the match to check the filesystem to see if the file exists and is a directory or not.

Since Path is derived from PurePath, this method is also available in Path objects.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> p = pathlib.PurePath('docs/src')
>>> p.globmatch('**/src', flags=pathlib.GLOBSTAR)
True

New 6.0

limit was added in 6.0.

Path.glob

def glob(self, patterns, *, flags=0, limit=1000):

glob takes a pattern (or list of patterns) and flags. It also allows configuring the max pattern limit. It will crawl the file system, relative to the current Path object, returning a generator of Path objects. If a file/folder matches any regular, inclusion pattern, it is considered a match. If a file matches any exclusion pattern (when enabling the NEGATE flag), then it will not be returned.

This method calls our own iglob implementation, and as such, should behave in the same manner in respect to features, the one exception being that instead of returning path strings in the generator, it will return Path objects.

The one difference between this glob and the iglob API is that this function does not accept the root_dir parameter. All searches are relative to the object's path, which is evaluated relative to the current working directory.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> p = pathlib.Path('docs/src')
>>> list(p.glob('**/*.txt', flags=pathlib.GLOBSTAR))
[PosixPath('docs/src/dictionary/en-custom.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/links.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/refs.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/abbr.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/posix.txt')]

New 6.0

limit was added in 6.0.

Path.rglob

def rglob(self, patterns, *, flags=0, path_limit=1000):

rglob takes a pattern (or list of patterns) and flags. It also allows configuring the max pattern limit. It will crawl the file system, relative to the current Path object, returning a generator of Path objects. If a file/folder matches any regular patterns, it is considered a match. If a file matches any exclusion pattern (when enabling the NEGATE flag), then it will be not be returned.

rglob mimics Python's pathlib version of rglob in that it uses a recursive logic. What this means is that when you are matching a path in the form some/path/name, the patterns name, path/name and some/path/name will all match. Essentially, the pattern behaves as if a GLOBSTAR pattern of **/ was added at the beginning of the pattern.

rglob is similar to glob except for the use of recursive logic. In all other respects, it behaves the same.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> p = pathlib.Path('docs/src')
>>> list(p.rglob('*.txt'))
[PosixPath('docs/src/dictionary/en-custom.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/links.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/refs.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/abbr.txt'), PosixPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/posix.txt')]

New 6.0

limit was added in 6.0.

Flags

pathlib.CASE, pathlib.C

CASE forces case sensitivity. CASE has higher priority than IGNORECASE.

On Windows, drive letters (C:) and UNC host/share (//host/share) portions of a path will still be treated case insensitively, but the rest of the path will have case sensitive logic applied.

pathlib.IGNORECASE, pathlib.I

IGNORECASE forces case insensitivity. CASE has higher priority than IGNORECASE.

glob.RAWCHARS, glob.R

RAWCHARS causes string character syntax to be parsed in raw strings: r'\u0040'r'@'. This will handle standard string escapes and Unicode including r'\N{CHAR NAME}'.

pathlib.NEGATE, pathlib.N

NEGATE causes patterns that start with ! to be treated as exclusion patterns. A pattern of !*.py would exclude any Python files. Exclusion patterns cannot be used by themselves though, and must be paired with a normal, inclusion pattern, either by utilizing the SPLIT flag, or providing multiple patterns in a list. Assuming the SPLIT flag, this means using it in a pattern such as inclusion|!exclusion.

If it is desired, you can force exclusion patterns, when no inclusion pattern is provided, to assume all files match unless the file matches the excluded pattern. This is done with the NEGATEALL flag.

NEGATE enables DOTGLOB in all exclude patterns, this cannot be disabled. This will not affect the inclusion patterns.

pathlib.NEGATEALL, pathlib.A

NEGATEALL can force exclusion patterns, when no inclusion pattern is provided, to assume all files match unless the file matches the excluded pattern. Essentially, it means if you use a pattern such as !*.md, it will assume two patterns were given: ** and !*.md, where !*.md is applied to the results of **, and ** is specifically treated as if GLOBSTAR was enabled.

Dot files will not be returned unless DOTGLOB is enabled. Symlinks will also be ignored in the return unless FOLLOW is enabled.

pathlib.MINUSNEGATE, pathlib.M

When MINUSNEGATE is used with NEGATE, exclusion patterns are recognized by a pattern starting with - instead of !. This plays nice with the extended glob feature which already uses ! in patterns such as !(...).

pathlib.GLOBSTAR, pathlib.G

GLOBSTAR enables the feature where ** matches zero or more directories.

pathlib.FOLLOW, pathlib.L

FOLLOW will cause GLOBSTAR patterns (**) to match and traverse symlink directories.

pathlib.REALPATH, pathlib.P

In the past, only glob and iglob operated on the filesystem, but with REALPATH, other functions will now operate on the filesystem as well: globmatch and match.

Normally, functions such as globmatch would simply match a path with regular expression and return the result. The functions were not concerned with whether the path existed or not. It didn't care if it was even valid for the operating system.

REALPATH forces globmatch and match to treat the path as a real file path for the given system it is running on. It will augment the patterns used to match files and enable additional logic so that the path must meet the following in order to match:

  • Path must exist.
  • Directories that are symlinks will not be matched by GLOBSTAR patterns (**) unless the FOLLOW flag is enabled.
  • When presented with a pattern where the match must be a directory, but the file path being compared doesn't indicate the file is a directory with a trailing slash, the command will look at the filesystem to determine if it is a directory.
  • Paths must match in relation to the current working directory unless the pattern is constructed in a way to indicates an absolute path.

pathlib.DOTGLOB, pathlib.D

By default, globbing and matching functions will not match file or directory names that start with dot . unless matched with a literal dot. DOTGLOB allows the meta characters (such as *) to glob dots like any other character. Dots will not be matched in [], *, or ?.

Alternatively DOTMATCH will also be accepted for consistency with the other provided libraries. Both flags are exactly the same and are provided as a convenience in case the user finds one more intuitive than the other since DOTGLOB is often the name used in Bash.

pathlib.NODOTDIR, glob.Z

NOTDOTDIR fundamentally changes how glob patterns deal with . and ... This is great if you'd prefer a more Zsh feel when it comes to special directory matching. When NODOTDIR is enabled, "magic" patterns, such as .*, will not match the special directories of . and ... In order to match these special directories, you will have to use literal glob patterns of . and ... This can be used in all glob API functions that accept flags, and will affect inclusion patterns as well as exclusion patterns.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> pathlib.Path('..').match('.*')
True
>>> pathlib.Path('..').match('.*', flags=pathlib.NODOTDIR)
False
>>> pathlib.Path('..').match('..', flags=pathlib.NODOTDIR)
True

Also affects exclusion patterns:

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob(['docs/..', '!*/.*'], flags=pathlib.NEGATE))
[]
>>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob(['docs/..', '!*/.*'], flags=pathlib.NEGATE | pathlib.NODOTDIR))
[PosixPath('docs/..')]
>>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob(['docs/..', '!*/..'], flags=pathlib.NEGATE | pathlib.NODOTDIR))
[]

New 7.0

NODOTDIR was added in 7.0.

pathlib.SCANDOTDIR, pathlib.SD

Not recommended for pathlib

pathlib supports all of the same flags that the wcmatch.glob library does. But due to how pathlib normalizes the paths that get returned, enabling SCANDOTDIR will only give confusing duplicates if using patterns such as .*. This is not a bug, but is something to be aware of.

SCANDOTDIR controls the directory scanning behavior of glob and rglob. The directory scanner of these functions do not return . and .. in their results. This means unless you use an explicit . or .. in your glob pattern, . and .. will not be returned. When SCANDOTDIR is enabled, . and .. will be returned when a directory is scanned causing "magic" patterns, such as .*, to match . and ...

This only controls the directory scanning behavior and not how glob patterns behave. Exclude patterns, which filter, the returned results via NEGATE, can still match . and .. with "magic" patterns such as .* regardless of whether SCANDOTDIR is enabled or not. It will also have no affect on globmatch. To fundamentally change how glob patterns behave, you can use NODOTDIR.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> list(pathlib.Path('temp').glob('**/.*', flags=glob.GLOBSTAR | glob.DOTGLOB))
[PosixPath('temp/.hidden'), PosixPath('temp/.DS_Store')]
>>> list(pathlib.Path('temp').glob('**/.*', flags=pathlib.GLOBSTAR | pathlib.DOTGLOB | pathlib.SCANDOTDIR))
[PosixPath('temp'), PosixPath('temp/..'), PosixPath('temp/.hidden'), PosixPath('temp/.hidden/..'), PosixPath('temp/.DS_Store')]

Notice when we turn off unique result filtering how we get multiple temp/.hidden results. This is due to how pathlib normalizes directories. When comparing the results to a non-pathlib glob, the results make a bit more sense.

>>> list(pathlib.Path('temp').glob('**/.*', flags=pathlib.GLOBSTAR | pathlib.DOTGLOB | pathlib.SCANDOTDIR | pathlib.NOUNIQUE))
[PosixPath('temp'), PosixPath('temp/..'), PosixPath('temp/.hidden'), PosixPath('temp/.hidden'), PosixPath('temp/.hidden/..'), PosixPath('temp/.DS_Store')]
>>> list(glob.glob('**/.*', flags=glob.GLOBSTAR | glob.DOTGLOB | glob.SCANDOTDIR, root_dir="temp"))
['.', '..', '.hidden', '.hidden/.', '.hidden/..', '.DS_Store']

New 7.0

SCANDOTDIR was added in 7.0.

pathlib.EXTGLOB, pathlib.E

EXTGLOB enables extended pattern matching which includes special pattern lists such as +(...), *(...), ?(...), etc. See the syntax overview for more information.

Alternatively EXTMATCH will also be accepted for consistency with the other provided libraries. Both flags are exactly the same and are provided as a convenience in case the user finds one more intuitive than the other since EXTGLOB is often the name used in Bash.

EXTGLOB and NEGATE

When using EXTGLOB and NEGATE together, if a pattern starts with !(, the pattern will not be treated as a NEGATE pattern (even if !( doesn't yield a valid EXTGLOB pattern). To negate a pattern that starts with a literal (, you must escape the bracket: !\(.

pathlib.BRACE, pathlib.B

BRACE enables Bash style brace expansion: a{b,{c,d}}ab ac ad. Brace expansion is applied before anything else. When applied, a pattern will be expanded into multiple patterns. Each pattern will then be parsed separately.

Duplicate patterns will be discarded1 by default, and glob and rglob will return only unique results. If you need glob or rglob to behave more like Bash and return all results, you can set NOUNIQUE. NOUNIQUE has no effect on matching functions such as globmatch and match.

For simple patterns, it may make more sense to use EXTGLOB which will only generate a single pattern which will perform much better: @(ab|ac|ad).

Massive Expansion Risk

  1. It is important to note that each pattern is crawled separately, so patterns such as {1..100} would generate one hundred patterns. In a match function (globmatch), that would cause a hundred compares, and in a file crawling function (glob), it would cause the file system to be crawled one hundred times. Sometimes patterns like this are needed, so construct patterns thoughtfully and carefully.

  2. BRACE and SPLIT both expand patterns into multiple patterns. Using these two syntaxes simultaneously can exponential increase duplicate patterns:

    >>> expand('test@(this{|that,|other})|*.py', BRACE | SPLIT | EXTMATCH)
    ['test@(this|that)', 'test@(this|other)', '*.py', '*.py']
    

    This effect is reduced as redundant, identical patterns are optimized away1, but when using crawling functions (like in glob) and NOUNIQUE that optimization is removed, and all of those patterns will be crawled. For this reason, especially when using functions like glob, it is recommended to use one syntax or the other.

pathlib.SPLIT, pathlib.S

SPLIT is used to take a string of multiple patterns that are delimited by | and split them into separate patterns. This is provided to help with some interfaces that might need a way to define multiple patterns in one input. It pairs really well with EXTGLOB and takes into account sequences ([]) and extended patterns (*(...)) and will not parse | within them. You can also escape the delimiters if needed: \|.

Duplicate patterns will be discarded1 by default, and glob and rglob will return only unique results. If you need glob or rglob to behave more like Bash and return all results, you can set NOUNIQUE. NOUNIQUE has no effect on matching functions such as globmatch and match.

While SPLIT is not as powerful as BRACE, it's syntax is very easy to use, and when paired with EXTGLOB, it feels natural and comes a bit closer. It is also much harder to create massive expansions of patterns with it, except when paired with BRACE. See BRACE and its warnings related to pairing it with SPLIT.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob('README.md|LICENSE.md', flags=pathlib.SPLIT))
[WindowsPath('README.md'), WindowsPath('LICENSE.md')]

pathlib.NOUNIQUE, pathlib.Q

NOUNIQUE is used to disable Wildcard Match's unique results return. This mimics Bash's output behavior if that is desired.

>>> from wcmatch import glob
>>> glob.glob('{*,README}.md', flags=glob.BRACE | glob.NOUNIQUE)
['LICENSE.md', 'README.md', 'README.md']
>>> glob.glob('{*,README}.md', flags=glob.BRACE )
['LICENSE.md', 'README.md']

By default, only unique paths are returned in glob and rglob. Normally this is what a programmer would want from such a library, so input patterns are reduced to unique patterns1 to reduce excessive matching with redundant patterns and excessive crawls through the file system. Also, as two different patterns that have been fed into glob may match the same file, the results are also filtered as to not return the duplicates.

Unique results are accomplished by filtering out duplicate patterns and by retaining an internal set of returned files to determine duplicates. The internal set of files is not retained if only a single, inclusive pattern is provided. Exclusive patterns via NEGATE will not trigger the logic, but singular inclusive patterns that use pattern expansions due to BRACE or SPLIT will act as if multiple patterns were provided, and will trigger the duplicate filtering logic. Lastly, if SCANDOTDIR is enabled, even singular inclusive patterns will trigger duplicate filtering logic to protect against cases where pathlib will normalize two unique results to be the same path, such as .hidden and .hidden/. which get normalized to .hidden.

NOUNIQUE disables all of the aforementioned "unique" optimizations, but only for glob and rglob. Functions like globmatch and match would get no benefit from disabling "unique" optimizations as they only match what they are given.

New in 6.0

"Unique" optimizations were added in 6.0, along with NOUNIQUE.

pathlib.MATCHBASE, pathlib.X

MATCHBASE, when a pattern has no slashes in it, will cause all glob related functions to seek for any file anywhere in the tree with a matching basename, or in the case of match and globmatch, path whose basename matches. MATCHBASE is sensitive to files and directories that start with . and will not match such files and directories if DOTGLOB is not enabled.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob('*.txt', flags=pathlib.MATCHBASE))
[WindowsPath('docs/src/dictionary/en-custom.txt'), WindowsPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/abbr.txt'), WindowsPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/links.txt'), WindowsPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/posix.txt'), WindowsPath('docs/src/markdown/_snippets/refs.txt'), WindowsPath('requirements/docs.txt'), WindowsPath('requirements/lint.txt'), WindowsPath('requirements/setup.txt'), WindowsPath('requirements/test.txt'), WindowsPath('requirements/tools.txt'), WindowsPath('site/_snippets/abbr.txt'), WindowsPath('site/_snippets/links.txt'), WindowsPath('site/_snippets/posix.txt'), WindowsPath('site/_snippets/refs.txt')]  

pathlib.NODIR, pathlib.O

NODIR will cause all glob related functions to return only matched files. In the case of PurePath classes, this may not be possible as those classes do not access the file system, nor will they retain trailing slashes.

>>> from wcmatch import pathlib
>>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob('*', flags=pathlib.NODIR))
[WindowsPath('appveyor.yml'), WindowsPath('LICENSE.md'), WindowsPath('MANIFEST.in'), WindowsPath('mkdocs.yml'), WindowsPath('README.md'), WindowsPath('setup.cfg'), WindowsPath('setup.py'), WindowsPath('tox.ini')] 
>>> list(pathlib.Path('.').glob('*'))
[WindowsPath('appveyor.yml'), WindowsPath('docs'), WindowsPath('LICENSE.md'), WindowsPath('MANIFEST.in'), WindowsPath('mkdocs.yml'), WindowsPath('README.md'), WindowsPath('requirements'), WindowsPath('setup.cfg'), WindowsPath('setup.py'), WindowsPath('site'), WindowsPath('tests'), WindowsPath('tox.ini'), WindowsPath('wcmatch')]

  1. Identical patterns are only reduced by comparing case sensitively as POSIX character classes are case sensitive: [[:alnum:]][[:ALNUM:]]


Last update: July 27, 2020